El Plan de Activación Socioeconómica del Sector Forestal

El Plan de Activación Socioeconómica del Sector Forestal

Arias Cañete: “El Plan de Activación Socioeconómica del Sector Forestal responde a la necesidad de incrementar, preservar, mejorar y asegurar nuestro patrimonio forestal”

20 de febrero de 2014. El ministro de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente, Miguel Arias Cañete, ha señalado que “la puesta en marcha del Plan de Activación Socioeconómica del Sector Forestal responde a la necesidad de incrementar, preservar, mejorar y asegurar nuestro patrimonio forestal”.

Asimismo, el ministro ha asegurado que el Plan busca aprovechar las oportunidades económicas y de generación de empleo que este sector ofrece. Miguel Arias Cañete ha presentado esta tarde, en la sede del Ministerio, el “Plan de Activación Socioeconómica del Sector Forestal”, elaborado por el Ministerio en colaboración con las Comunidades Autónomas y con las organizaciones representativas de este sector, y con la contribución de otros Departamentos ministeriales. Al acto han asistido también la secretaria general de Agricultura y Alimentación, Isabel García Tejerina, y la directora general de Desarrollo Rural y Política Forestal, Begoña Nieto, además de otras personalidades.

Durante la presentación, el ministro ha explicado que se trata de un plan dirigido a la coordinación de actuaciones en el medio forestal español, en el marco del Plan para la Diversificación de la Actividad Económica del Medio Rural. El ministro ha añadido que este Plan se configura como un instrumento de aplicación nacional, estrechamente ligado a la programación del Fondo Europeo Agrícola de Desarrollo Rural (Feader).

SECTOR FORESTAL ESPAÑOL

Según ha resaltado, el sector forestal español generó en 2013 unos 7.900 millones de euros de valor añadido bruto, lo que supone una aportación al PIB nacional del 0,76%. No obstante, Arias Cañete considera que “todavía existe un potencial de crecimiento muy importante, que debemos aprovechar con la puesta en marcha de medidas estructurales”. Asimismo, el ministro ha apuntado que este sector dio empleo en 2013 a 117.000 personas (0,67% de la población ocupada), siendo el subsector de la madera y el corcho el que más empleo genera (43,9%), seguido de la industria del papel (36,4%), mientras que el resto de aprovechamientos forestales alcanza casi el 20 por ciento. También ha indicado que la superficie forestal española es de 27,7 millones de hectáreas y ocupa el 54,8% de la superficie nacional, una cifra muy superior a la media europea (6,5 millones de hectáreas y un 40,1% del total de la Unión Europea). De la superficie nacional, 18,7 millones de hectáreas corresponden a bosques, “siendo España el tercer país de la Unión Europea en superficie forestal arbolada, (sólo por detrás de Suecia y Finlandia), con una gran diversidad de ecosistemas forestales”.

CONTRIBUCIÓN AL MEDIO AMBIENTE

Para el ministro, la importante extensión y diversidad de los montes españoles “se multiplica si tenemos en cuenta su carácter multifuncional, ya que son fuente de recursos naturales, contribuyen al medio ambiente y abastecen de muy variados productos y aprovechamientos”. Entre ellos, Arias Cañete ha destacado la contribución de los montes a la mitigación del cambio climático. En primer lugar, a través del efecto sumidero de las masas forestales, que capturan CO2 y, en segundo lugar, por la reducción de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero que genera el aprovechamiento de la biomasa como combustible. En definitiva, “las medidas del Plan contribuyen al cumplimiento de los compromisos adquiridos en el protocolo de Kioto”, ha recalcado. En este ámbito, el ministro ha subrayado que los bosques pueden dar soporte a un nuevo valor medioambiental, a través de los Bancos de Conservación de la naturaleza, instrumento de carácter voluntario que permitirá compensar o reparar posibles pérdidas de biodiversidad mediante la implantación de masas forestales de nueva creación.

APROVECHAMIENTOS ANALIZADOS

Por otra parte, Arias Cañete ha explicado que el objeto de análisis llevado a cabo para la elaboración de este plan han sido once aprovechamientos forestales: madera, biomasa, resina, corcho, castaña, piñón, hongos y trufas, caza y pesca, dehesa, ganadería extensiva y usos recreativos. Para el ministro, “España tiene un enorme potencial para la producción de madera y leña, incluida la biomasa. Así, el ministro ha detallado que la tasa de extracción de madera y leña de los montes españoles es de un 37%, con valores muy distintos entre Comunidades Autónomas que oscilan entre el 10 y el 80 por ciento. En cuanto al resto de aprovechamientos forestales, el ministro ha destacado algunos aspectos, como la depreciación del corcho en la última década; una cierta reactivación de la resina y de la biomasa; una balanza comercial positiva de castaña y piñón; una gran inestabilidad en la producción y en los precios de hongos y trufas; una creciente importancia económica de la caza; y una gran relevancia de la dehesa, desde el punto de vista territorial, medioambiental y del desarrollo rural. En cuanto al diagnóstico del sector forestal que sustenta este Plan, Arias Cañete ha destacado la reducida dimensión de la propiedad forestal, la escasa ordenación de los montes y el bajo nivel de asociacionismo. También ha apuntado la necesidad de mejorar y perfeccionar las fuentes de información, tanto de producción como de comercialización de productos forestales. En relación con la normativa aplicable, el ministro aprecia “una gran heterogeneidad entre legislaciones autonómicas, determinados vacíos legales y la necesidad de modernizar algunas normas de ámbito estatal, como la Ley de Montes”. Finalmente, el análisis de los distintos productos y aprovechamientos forestales “demuestra que el coste de explotación de los montes y de obtención y transporte de productos forestales es elevado”, ha completado.

OBJETIVOS DEL PLAN

Por otro lado, Arias Cañete ha explicado que, una vez establecido el diagnóstico del sector forestal, el Plan establece una serie de objetivos con los que se trata de impulsar la diversificación de la actividad económica en los municipios rurales, mejorando así las condiciones de vida de sus habitantes, y en particular los vinculados más directamente con la actividad forestal. Para ello, se han identificado 85 medidas concretas, de las que se consideran prioritarias, en primer lugar, aquellas que dentro de la programación Feader contribuyan a preservar el medio ambiente y prevenir y mitigar el cambio climático. En segundo lugar, ha añadido Arias Cañete, las que promueven la valorización energética de la biomasa en el medio rural y en edificios de uso comunitario. Asimismo, “serán prioritarias las medidas orientadas a impulsar el asociacionismo y las organizaciones de productores para la movilización de productos forestales”. Y, finalmente, se dará importancia a apoyar la transformación, la diferenciación y la diversificación de uso de los aprovechamientos forestales, para aumentar su valor añadido. A este respecto, el ministro ha aclarado que su Departamento y las Comunidades Autónomas se han comprometido a desarrollar normativas y directrices para impulsar aquellas medidas que deban ser desarrolladas por las administraciones públicas, en relación con la propiedad forestal, planificación y gestión sostenible de terrenos forestales o gestión de montes y promoción del asociacionismo.

Desde el ámbito público, Arias Cañete ha expresado la voluntad de su departamento de “dar a conocer a la sociedad los beneficios del mundo forestal, aumentando la cultura forestal”, con medidas en materia de formación, información y divulgación. Por último, el ministro ha detallado que el plan tiene una duración de siete años, coincidiendo con el periodo de programación 2014-2020. En este periodo se realizará un seguimiento de su aplicación y, a los tres años de su entrada en vigor, se llevará a cabo una evaluación intermedia. Mientras, en el año 2021 “se realizará una evaluación final para valorar los progresos realizados en cada uno de los objetivos del Plan”.


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